Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span title="Tạp chí Phát triển Khoa học và Công nghệ (PTKH&amp;CN) của Đại học Quốc gia thành phố Hồ Chí Minh (ĐHQG-HCM) được thành lập từ năm 1997, ra số đầu tiên vào tháng 1 năm 1998. Từ năm 2006 Tạp chí đã"><strong>Science and Technology Development Journal</strong> (STDJ), Vietnam National University - Ho Chi Minh City (VNU-HCM) was established in 1997. And the first issue was published in January 1998 with </span><span title="đăng ký mã số chuẩn quốc tế ISSN 1859-0128.">ISSN 1859-0128. </span><span title="Từ đó cho đến nay, Tạp chí PTKH&amp;CN đã trở thành diễn đàn khoa học quan trọng nhất của đội ngũ cán bộ nghiên cứu, giảng viên, nghiên cứu sinh của ĐHQG-HCM và cũng là diễn đàn khoa học công nghệ đáng tin cậy của">Since then, STDJ has become the most important scientific forum of scientists from VNU-HCM as well as</span><span title="nhiều nhà nghiên cứu, giảng viên các trường đại học khác tại Việt Nam."> other universities. </span><span title="Tạp chí đã trải qua 20 năm phát triển và đã trở thành nhịp cầu giao lưu khoa học, cũng như làm phong phú tài liệu tham khảo cho đội ngũ giảng viên, nghiên cứu sinh, sinh viên ĐHQG-HCM nói riêng và các Trường đại">The magazine has undergone 20 years of development and has become a bridge for scientific exchanges, as well as enriching reference materials for the faculty, doctoral students, students of VNU-HCM in particular and other universities, institutes... </span></span></p> <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span title="học phía Nam nói chung. "><br></span><span title="Tính đến hết năm 2016 Tạp chí đã xuất bản được 276 số với 2714 bài nghiên cứu của các nhà khoa học, cán bộ trong và ngoài ĐHQG-HCM trong 5 lĩnh vực nghiên cứu: Kỹ thuật và Công nghệ, Khoa học Tự nhiên,">By the end of 2016, the journal has published 276 issues with 2714 research articles in five areas of research: Engineering and Technology, Natural Sciences, </span><span title="Khoa học Xã hội và Nhân văn, Kinh tế luật và Khoa học Quản lý, Khoa học Trái đất và Môi trường tương ứng với 5 chuyên san chuyên ngành của Tạp chí.">Social Sciences and Humanities, Economics of Law and Management Sciences, Earth Sciences and Environment corresponding to 5 specialized journals of the Journal. </span></span></p> <p><span id="result_box" class="" lang="en"><span title="Tạp chí đã được phát hành tại các thư viện của các đơn vị thành viên của ĐHQG-HCM, các Sở Khoa học Công nghệ của các tỉnh thành trên cả nước và được Hội đồng học hàm Giáo sư Nhà nước đánh giá cao.">The magazine has been widely indexed in the various libraries at Vietnam. </span></span></p> Viet Nam National University Ho Chi Minh City en-US Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management 2588-1051 <p>Copyright The Author(s) 2018. This article is published with open access by Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. This article is distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0)</a> which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.&nbsp;</p> Analysis The Impact Of Buyers’ Demographics To Green Consumption In Hochiminh City http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/679 <p>Nowadays, environmental protection is an urgent problem which raises top concerns. Besides, green consumption is a trend encouraged to be widely implemented in many countries in the world, including Vietnam. However, in the reality of Vietnam, changing green consumer behavior in choosing products has been negligible and insignificant. With a diversified and varied population structure, Ho Chi Minh City is selected to analyze the impacts of demography and other related factors on green consumption behavior in the market. The quantitative research method is mainly used with the analysis of multiple correlation and linear regression. The results retrieved from 312 survey samples show that regarding demography, educational level, and marital status influence green consumption behavior. Besides, the results also show and measure the impacts of other factors, namely attitudes, subjective standards, environmental concerns, unavailability of green products on the green consumption behavior of consumers in Ho Chi Minh city. With the aim at promoting green consumer behavior in Ho Chi Minh City, there is a need for a change requiring the cooperation of all the Government, Enterprises, and consumers in stepping up propaganda, raising public awareness; simultaneously, orienting economic development activities associated with sustainable environmental protection.</p> Tô Thị Kim Hồng Trần Thị Diễm Thúy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-18 2020-12-18 5 1 1170 1186 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.679 title description none g Factors affecting the intention of purchasing the smartwatch of Nha Trang Consumers by using extended theory of planned behavior http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/689 <p>The main aims of this study is to explore the intention to use smart watches from consumers perspective. The study applied the extended theory of planned behavior by integrating two additional variables including: aesthetic design and perceived price in addition to variables in the original intended behavior theory model, specifically: attitudes towards smartwatch purchases, perceived behavioral control and social norms to explain consumers' intent to buy smartwatches in Nha Trang city. This study adopts partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique to test the reliability and validity of the measures based on a sample of 200 consumers in Nha Trang. The results indicate that five proposed hypotheses are supported by data with an increasing degree of impact, which are perceived behavioral control (ß = 0.58), attitudes towards smartwatch purchases (ß = 0.20), aesthetic design (ß = 0.15), perceived price (ß = 0.14) and social norms (ß = 0.11). The research results are expected to make significant contributions both in academic research and practical research through useful and practical recommendations for watch product consumption.</p> Nga Thi Nguyen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-05 2021-01-05 5 1 1187 1199 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.689 title description none g Implementation green growth activities of enterprises in industrial park – investigation at Dong Nai industrial park http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/691 <p>The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent of implementing the green growth activities of the enterprises operating in Dong Nai Industrial Park. Based on the sustainable manufacturing and eco-innovation approaches, the research develop a set of indicators to evaluates green growth from enterprise perspectives. Utilizing the methodology of interviews and professional solution surveys, this set of indicators has been divided into 35 sub-criteria with 5 main groups of activities. The results drawn from the survey of 252 enterprises (classified according to the criteria of scale, field, type, location) have shown that the extent of exploiting the green growth of enterprises in Dong Nai Industrial Park has remained insignificant and inconsiderable. In general, the number of enterprises with a total implementation score of over 50 (out of a maximum of 70 points) is only 17.05%; in terms of the average score of each criterion: only 2/35 surveyed criteria (proportion of 22.85%) have average implementation evaluation score of over 1.4 ; 6/35 criteria have average score from 1.2 to 1.4; the remaining 27/35 have average score of under 1.2 (at the degree of being considered or not implemented). This set of indicators helps enterprises as well as authorities to see the reality of implementing activities that combine resource efficiency with environmental improvement, thereby making improvements to help enterprises accelerate growth, contributing to the successful implementation of the country's green growth strategy.</p> Nguyen Anh Tuan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-05 2021-01-05 5 1 1200 1218 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.691 title description none g Policy Analysis Of Supporting Children With Disabilities Access To Social Security http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/697 <p>If disabled people are considered as the weak individuals in community, the handicapped children will be more vulnerable as they are lack of the ability to take care of themsselves. The disadvantage of these people is the dependence on others in many aspects of their lives. The Government has issued amble policies in order to help paralyzed people and children, specifically policies related to social security. According to the Children Law No. 102/2016/QH13, the disabled children are ranked in the top 14 of those who are having underprivileged lives. This law is really important in reducing the handicapped children's burdens in life by providing them with caring and sharing from others. Despite this attention of the Government, the policies for disabled children are given less prioritization than those for normal children and disabled adults. In fact, the policies for disabled children are the same as those for children under 6 years old as well as the disabled adults. However, there are a number of troubles from processing to implementing the policies, negatively affecting the opportunities of accessing to social security of disabled people in general and handicapped children in particular. As a result, those disadvantaged people still have many difficulties in life need to be shared from others.</p> Nguyễn Thanh Huyền ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-05 2021-01-05 5 1 1219 1232 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.697 title description none g The impact of perceived risk on a traveller ’s revisit intention: Case study in Binh Thuan http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/699 <p>According to the Vietnam National Administration of Tourism (2018), the number of travellers revisit to Vietnam in general and Binh Thuan in particular is only about 40%. Price increases in peak season, polluted environment, etc. affected the tourists' perceived risk at destination. Therefore, this research is done for the purposes of: (1) Identifying perceived risk componants; (2) Measuring the impact of those perceived risks on traveller 's revisit intention at Binh Thuan province; (3) Proposed implications for local industry managers and business managers to apply in order to increase tourists' intention to return to Binh Thuan in the near future. The research uses both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research was conducted through focus group discussions. The quantitative study was conducted through interviews with 278 tourists. Research results show that: revisit intention is affected by 04 components of perceived risk: financial risk (-0.547); operational risk (-0,346); psychological - social risks (- 0.274); and, physical risk (-0,248). However, the study also has some certain limitations: firstly, the study conducted a survey during the peak tourist season in Binh Thuan. Secondly, the study only conducted a sample of 278 tourists, so it did not fully represent the research crowd.</p> Lê Quốc Nghi Nguyễn Thị Lài Nguyễn Viết Bằng ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-05 2021-01-05 5 1 1233 1241 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.699 title description none g Factors affecting of bank selection decisions to saving deposits by individual customers in Ben Tre province http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/730 <p>The purpose of this article is to determine and measure factors affecting the decision of choosing a bank for saving deposits of individual customers in Ben Tre province. With a convenient sampling of 279 customers aged between 20 and 65, the obtained data is analyzed by the Reliability Analysis, Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Binary Logistic regression analysis. The result suggests that contrary to assertions in previous studies, Bank Reputation does not impact individual customers' decisions when choosing the bank to deposit. Besides that, (1) Convenience, (2) Service quality, (3) Bank technology, (4) Financial benefits, (5) Reference groups have positive impacts on the decision of choosing a bank for saving deposits. The practical implications drawn from this study suggest that the Bank should develop business strategies appropriate to the market by providing services with more utilities based on modern systems and technology platforms. This study also separates the scale of the Bank Technology factor from the Convenience factor or Service quality factor. This reliable scale will be the standard for future studies in banking selection in Vietnam.</p> Ân Nguyễn Vũ Hoài Võ Thị Ngọc Thúy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 5 1 1242 1252 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.730 title description none g Applying Bayesian method to investigate determinants of non performing loans of banks in Vietnam http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/704 <p>This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting non-performing loans of commercial banks in Vietnam for the period 2007 - 2018. The study applies the Bayesian approach and the Random-walk Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to evaluate the impact of micro and macro factors on non-performing loans of commercial banks. The dependent variable is non-performing loans, which is measured by the ratio of non-performing loans divided by total outstanding loans; the independent variables in terms of bank characteristics are non-performing loans of the previous year, profitability, bank size, bak loans, and bank capital; the macro variables are inflation and GDP growth. Research data was collected from financial statements of 30 Vietnamese commercial banks and the General Statistics Office of Vietnam from 2007 to 2018. To increase the reliability and efficiency of the model as well as reasonable Bayes inference, a convergence test of the MCMC chain was performed. The result of this study shows that non-performing loans of the previous year, bank size, bank loan, bank capital, and inflation have positive impacts on bank non-performing loans. In addition, bank profitability and GDP growth rate are factors that have the opposite effects. Based on the research results, the author proposes policy implications for the decision-makers to help banks reduce non-performing loans and promote banks to operate effectively and more efficiently.</p> Nam Hai Pham Nguyen Ngoc Tan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-13 2021-02-13 5 1 1267 1277 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.704 title description none g Blockchain technology for sustainable supply chains of agri-food in Vietnam: a SWOT analysis http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/675 <p>Such a disruptive technology as the blockchain platform has a potential to provide value-added contributions towards multiple-disciplinary applications these days. Blockchain technology, considered as the second generation of the Internet in the digital age, has been applied in practice for various industry such as finance, healthcare, tourism, retailing, manufacturing, education, public sector, supply chains management, agri-food industry and so on. In which, supply chain operations, particularly agri-food management, becomes a prosperous beneficiary from blockchain technology. In the local context, Vietnam has been achieved the competitive advantages in agricultural production among the world in some agri-food products such as black peppercorn, cashew nuts, coffee, coconut, rice, and rubber. Furthermore, Vietnam is considered as one of pioneers in implementing blockchain technology for traceability and transparency of agri-food products across Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. However, design and implementation of the blockchain technology application in agri-food production in the case of Vietnam agriculture industry have been confronted with opportunities and challenges, besides its strengths and weaknesses in nature. This paper aims to concentrating on the analysis of Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) of blockchain-applied supply chain relevant to agri-food products. In addition, the application of blockchain technology in supply chains has been expected to promote the sustainable development of Vietnam agriculture, in the accordance with the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the 21<sup>st</sup> century. We adopt the research method of interpretive approach to synthesize the literature and reasonably induce research conclusions. We finally prescribe some policy recommendations and implications for agri-food stakeholders such as regional policy makers, agri-food based blockchain platform designers, executives, and farmers as users in relevant to facilitate the blockchain technology for agri-food chains in Vietnam agriculture.</p> Tran Thien Vu Hue Hoang Hong Trinh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-13 2021-02-13 5 1 1278 1289 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.675 title description none g Factors that affect employee motivation at Bentre Import Export Joint- stock Corporation (Betrimex) http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/706 <p>The research on factors that affect employee motivation at Bentre Import Export Joint- stock Corporation (Betrimex) has special significance in motivating employees, attracting and retaining talent, thereby helping the Corporation improve work performance. During the research, 300 employees working at Betrimex were surveyed and 250 employees with valid answer sheets were selected, survey data was processed with the SPSS software and the research model through scale reliability analysis, exploratory data analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis was tested. The research results have shown 07 factors affecting employee motivation at Betrimex, measured through 37 observed variables and including the pay, bonuses, benefits, allowances, working conditions, relationships with colleagues and relationships with superiors. Where the pay (b = 0.403) is the factor that has the most powerful influence on employee motivation and working conditions (b = 0.171) have the least influence on employee motivation. The results of multiple regression analysis have also showed that the adjusted R2 is 0.732. Thus, 07 independent variables can explain 73.2% of the variations of the dependent variables. Also, the research results have tremendous implications for developing strategies and plans for human resources development of Betrimex in the future.</p> Huỳnh Thanh Tú Ung Hoàng Khang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-15 2021-02-15 5 1 1290 1298 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.706 title description none g The relationship of corporate social responsibility to customer loyalty - A study in Vietnam market http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/723 <p>In recent years, consumers are increasingly interested in corporate social responsibility activities for the community. Many companies have begun to focus on CSR activities as it can contribute to improving the company's image in customer's perception. In Vietnam, although there are also some studies about CSR, the quantity is limited and there are certain limitations. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the relationship between CSR activities and customer loyalty through trust, customer company identify, and satisfaction. With the data being collected by survey questionnaires, the authors test the model and research hypotheses by using PLS-SEM techniques. The results show that CSR activities have a positive impact on customer loyalty through factors of trust, customer company identify, and customer satisfaction. This study helps business managers to develop effective policies and to have a new perspective on CSR activities as well as its values. In addition, the positive outlook of the customers on the business will bring many benefits, contributing to improving the brand value and reputation, enhancing competitive advantages towards sustainable development.</p> Nguyễn Văn Anh Thảo Thị Phương Nguyễn ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-15 2021-02-15 5 1 1299 1313 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.723 title description none g Effects of Application of Quality Assurances Certification at Farm Level on the Probability to Implement Traceability for Agricultural Products towards Global Markets: Evidences from Farmed-Shrimp in Mekong Delta, Vietnam http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/690 <p>This study investigates the impact of the application of quality assurance certification on the origin traceability of shrimp exports in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta region. The primary data was investigated in 2018, which covered the whole supply chain of shrimp production such as farmers, collectors, distributors, processing factories. Descriptive statistics are utilized to analyze and compare the differences in the supply chain and product origin traceability between certified and non-certified shrimps. The willingness of farmers to embrace product origin traceability of certified and non-certified shrimps is also analyzed. The results show that certified farmers indicate a higher possibility of traceability due to proper monitoring and management essential to traceability. The application of international quality assurance certification of shrimp farmers increases awareness and willingness to implement origin traceability. The result proves the effectiveness of the collaboration between the farmers and processing factories in the implementation of traceability in the entire supply chain.</p> Duc Minh Nguyen Khưu Thị Phương Đông Nguyễn Thị Ngọc Hoa Takashi Matsuishi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-21 2021-02-21 5 1 1314 1324 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.690 title description none g Analysis of factors affecting the income of agritourism farms in Lam Dong Province http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/719 <p>The study used descriptive statistical methods, interval regression to analyze factors affecting the income of Agritourism Farms (DLNN) in Lam Dong province. On the basis of the resource-based efficiency theory, the previous studies along with the implementation situation to propose model the factors affecting farmers' income. With valid 189 answer sheets, the study combined qualitative analysis with quantitative analysis to identify problems. The findings indicate that the income of farms engaged in agritourism is strongly influenced from group factors such as Characteristic group of household head: age, education; Farm characteristics group: area size, number of years participating in foreign tourism, foreign tourism service activities, distance; Group of social capital: trust, relationship with tourism companies, local authorities; Local authorities and Group factors supported by the state, local government: open class training knowledge on tourism, support loan assistance. In other words, from the reality of the agritourism business situation of farmers in Lam Dong province, the research results show the importance of the above group factors. This is proposing some main functions aimed at improving income for farmers doing business in foreign tourism, while contributing to the development of agritourism in Lam Dong province.</p> Dung Thái Nguyễn ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-13 2021-03-13 5 1 first first 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.719 title description none g Dispute on the Contract of Transferring Land-Use Rights: An Analysis of the Vietnamese Precedent No. 04/2016/AL http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/702 <p>Among many precedents involving the land issue, the precedent No. 04/2016/AL regulates the dispute on the contract for transferring land-use rights. Passed by The Council of Judges of The Supreme People's Court on April 6, 2016, house ownership and land-use rights are marital properties, but only the husband or the wife signs the contract on selling the house and transferring the land-use rights to another, and the transferor received the full payment from the transferee as agreed. The husband or the wife did not sign the contract. If there is sufficient evidence supporting that: (i) this person knows the transfer and jointly uses the money paid from transferring the landuse rights; and (ii) this person knows that the transferee received, managed and used this house and land publicly without having any objections. In this case, it is necessary to determine that person agreed upon with the transfer of land-use rights. Despite its significance and role in the dynamics of the Vietnamese law, little research has been conducted into the extent to which the precedent has a considerable impact on the application of local courts. Furthermore, the understanding and analysis of precedents have not been fully explored. The article aims to analyze the controversial points that focus on an unwritten consent in the aforementioned transaction. This paper examines the legal and practical values of precedent – as a guideline – in three striking aspects: (i) applying precedent to settle cases containing similar issues; (ii) filling a gap in a transaction with the third party of the marital property but only the spouse signed the contract; and (iii) extending the scope of the jointly marital ownership to include the range of common property of households' members. The exploration of this precedent, thus, contributes to the understanding of the contemporary socialist law and the comprehensively legal framework for the precedent system in Vietnam.</p> Nguyet Thi Anh Truong ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-13 2021-03-13 5 1 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.702 title description none g A comparative study on goals of competition law with the case of merger regulation and recommendations to Viet Nam http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/684 <p>The goals of competition law and policy play a notable navigator in law enforcement and lead to new rule inauguration regimes. However, Vietnam avoids signifying its goals in all two competition law versions, <em>the Vietnamese Competition Law 2004</em> and <em>the Vietnamese Competition Law 2018</em>. The practical merger regulation has been thus confusing in the circumstances. Be continued with the lengthy controversial discussions in the academic world; the paper opens the comparative approach to other major jurisdictions. Rather than the Asian earlies system of Japanese anti-monopoly law or the European Union's primary youngest competition law, the United States antitrust law contributes to the original explanation of the law's objectives and directions. It experiences that Vietnam could maintain the diverse goals of competition law with its priority interests. Rejecting the aspect of free and fair competition, or the workable competition, the analysis traces the identification of effective competition mainly according to the European Union's perspective. Notably, the industrial policy takes a significant connection with the competition policy; however, it does not always ensure competition law enforcement. Be mainly based on Japanese historical achievement; the paper leads to an appropriate direction to resolve this complicated relationship between the two conflict but reciprocity policies. These implications will contribute to enhancing the legalization of competition law in Vietnam.</p> Hieu Trong Truong ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-02-13 2021-02-13 5 1 1253 1266 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.684 title description none g The fraud rule under letter of credit law in the people’s republic of China and implications for Vietnam http://stdjelm.scienceandtechnology.com.vn/index.php/stdjelm/article/view/722 <p>In international trade where the buyer and the seller do not have information about each other, letter of credit is used to assure the other parties' fears in the sale contract. For instance, the sellers are afraid of not being paid after sending the goods bought by the purchasers, meanwhile, the buyers have no reasonable grounds to believe the sellers will send the conforming goods under the requirements of the sale contracts. The letter of credit is a settlement between parties to reduce the risks and inserts security into the international sale of goods. However, there are fraudsters who tries to defraud the process of the letter of credit and fraud rule is expected to prevent this issue. There are countries tried to develop specific regulations for the letter of credit and fraud rule, one of those countries is the People's Republic of China (P.R.C). The practices of letter of credit in China had been an aiming point of critiques through years by letter of credit experts. In such wise, the Supreme People's Court of P.R.C has issued the Rules of the Supreme People's Court Concerning Several Issues in Hearing Letter of Credit Case (``the 2005 Rules'') in an effort to partly solve the problems. This paper will give a brief introduction about the letter of credit's operation, the law regulating the letter of credit in international trade as well as illustrate the specify law for the fraud rule in letter of credit law in P.R.C by emphasizing the history and summarizing the structure of the fraud rule. Thenceforward, the author will evaluate the case study in Vietnam to show the situation of Vietnam in these days and giving recommendations.</p> Linh Le Thuc Bui ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-03-13 2021-03-13 5 1 first first 10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.722 title description none g