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 Research article






Exploring tourist animosity and its influence on destination choices in the post-covid 19 eras: A study of Vietnamese independent travelers

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Previous studies on consumer animosity have traditionally focused on the relationship between a single home country and a specific target country. This limited approach implies that animosity is contingent upon the unique dynamics between these two countries. However, this study seeks to broaden the conceptualization of consumer animosity by exploring its applicability to a pandemic health crisis, an area that has not been previously examined. While consumer animosity has been studied in economic, political, cultural, and religious contexts, its relevance within the context of a health crisis has not been thoroughly investigated. This study is to investigate tourist animosity towards different countries and its impact on the decision-making process for choosing a tourist destination, before and after a holiday. This study’s primary objectives were successfully accomplished through a comprehensive analysis, which entailed thoroughly examining and interpreting qualitative data procured from a total of seventeen semi-structured interviews conducted with meticulous care and attention to detail. The findings reveal that tourist animosities, including general animosity, war hartred, the threat of pandemics, and countries' policies regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, have a negative influence on tourists' intentions to visit, intentions to revisit, and their likelihood to spread positive word-of-mouth. The study also highlights that tourists frequently rely on online sources, such as government websites, to access tourism information and review countries' travel policies, even in the post-COVID-19 era. This research contributes to the understanding of the consumer animosity construct, which has been previously explored in the realms of economics, politics, culture, and religion but has not been applied to a pandemic health crisis before. Furthermore, the study investigates universal animosity, which encompasses animosity directed towards various countries and extends beyond country-specific causes, offering practical implications for the tourism industry in the post-pandemic era.


Research on independent travelers is crucial 1 , 2 , providing insights into their behavior and decision-making in the post-COVID-19 era. Vietnamese tourists are increasingly choosing foreign destinations due to rising incomes, benefiting the economies of visited countries 3 . Understanding tourist animosity can help tailor marketing strategies for collectivistic Vietnamese tourists 4 . Despite the impact of COVID-19, there are signs of recovery among Vietnamese independent travelers who prioritize safety, outdoor activities, and flexible plans. Digital information plays a significant role in trip planning and staying informed about travel regulations. Globalization presents challenges for businesses expanding across borders, requiring understanding of consumer behavior and potential animosity. Further research is needed to explore the dynamics of animosity and affinity in tourism, considering the strong connection between destinations and their origins.

Our study expands on the conceptualization of the consumer animosity construct, which has been previously explored in economics, politics, culture, and religion, but has never been applied to a pandemic health crisis before. Several research (e.g., Riefler and Diamantopoulos 5 , Hoffmann, Mai 6 ) noted that previous studies on consumer animosity used to limit the conceptualization of consumer animosity from one home country and one target country, which means that animosity depends on the unique relationship between a particular home country and a specific target country. However, the conceptualization of consumer animosity varies according to scenarios and situations. Therefore, the understanding of consumer animosity in general and tourist animosity in specific might change, especially since people had a hard time during the COVID-19 pandemic two years ago. Additionally, this study also aims to explore the role of digital information in tourist destination choices in the post-COVID-19 era. A better understanding of the concept will benefit for tourism businesses and agencies to better understand tourist destination choices better.

The study aims to examine the phenomenon of tourist animosity and its impact on the destination choices of Vietnamese independent outbound tourists, particularly in the context following the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aims to address the existing gap in academic research and fulfill the practical needs within the Vietnam tourism industry. By investigating the factors contributing to tourist animosity and understanding its influence on destination preferences, this study intends to provide valuable insights for both scientific research and practical implications. The findings will contribute to a better understanding of Vietnamese tourists' decision-making processes and assist the tourism industry in developing effective strategies to enhance destination attractiveness and mitigate negative perceptions among independent outbound tourists.

Literature Review

Customer animosity

In 1998, discovered that some consumers avoid buying products from a specific country due to their negative feelings towards that country. Klein and Ettenson 7 conducted a significant study that provided evidence that many Chinese consumers continue to have negative feelings towards Japan due to the Nanjing massacre during World War II. As a result, these negative feelings reduce their willingness to purchase products made in Japan. Subsequent studies confirmed a strong link between animosity towards a country and consumers' unwillingness to purchase products made there. Maher and Mady 8 confirm the negative effect of Kuwaiti customers’ animosity on their willingness to buy Danish goods. This negative effect was also confirmed in other studies such as Harmeling, Magnusson 9 study on Chinese and US customers, Lee, Lee 10 on Chinese and Japanese customers, Muposhi, Dhurup 11 on South African customers toward Chinese goods, and Antonetti, Manika 12 on Chinese customers toward Japanese goods. As a result, multinational companies should assess consumer antipathy towards the country of origin or manufacture before entering new markets. Thus, identifying potential animosity is crucial for effectively communicating a product's country of origin. If there is strong antipathy towards the manufacturing country or brand, companies should avoid emphasizing the origin in their advertisements or packaging.

In the literature o customer behavior, customer animosity refers to customers’ unfavourable attitude towards a country 7 . Consumer animosity can be antipathy 6 , 7 , negative emotion, dislike, and enmity towards a country 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 . Consumer animosity stems from various sources, such as economic disputes, personal interaction with the people from the animosity country, political incidents, religious, and historical events, wars and military conflicts 17 . Jung, Ang 16 categorized animosity into different types based on national or personal nature. National animosity arises from the perception of a threat to the home country's national superiority, sovereignty, or competitiveness by the target country. On the other hand, personal animosity stems from negative personal experiences with a foreign country, its culture, or its people. Regarding the second dimension, this typology distinguishes between situational animosity, which is a reaction to a specific provocation, and stable animosity, which aligns with the original concept of animosity as a long-lasting antipathy resulting from military, economic, and political provocations over time. However, these studies mostly focused on customer animosity from one specific country toward a given country. Therefore, customer animosity from one country to different countries or universal animosity had not received enough research attention.

The application of animosity construct in tourism

Consumer behavior theory, such as the framework proposed by Darley, Blankson 18 , highlights the direct influence of attitudes on customer intentions. Specifically, in the tourism context, the concept of tourist animosity, characterized by unfavorable attitudes, has gained attention among researchers. While previous studies have primarily focused on the interaction between tourists and hosts and the potential for the tourism experience to shape attitudes 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , the notion of consumer animosity as a negative sentiment towards specific countries that can impact purchase decisions has only recently emerged in the tourism industry.

Persistent consequences of crises and conflicts can lead to animosity towards certain countries, thereby negatively affecting the destination's image and visitors' intention to travel, even after the critical event has concluded. For instance, Guo, Zhou 21 found that Chinese people's animosity towards Japan, stemming from World War II events, influences their willingness to visit Japan as a tourism destination. Similarly, Stepchenkova, Shichkova 23 analyzed animosity within the strained US-Russia relations context and demonstrated its indirect impact on visitation intentions mediated by destination and country image. Recent studies 22 , 24 have also indicated that hatred towards immigrants and political animosity predict the intention to visit a particular country. These studies highlight the significance of tourist hartred as a factor influencing tourist behaviors and intentions, emphasizing the need to consider negative attitudes towards specific countries when examining consumer decision-making in the tourism industry.

Recent studies on tourism management, such as Campo and Alvarez 25 , Stepchenkova, Dai 26 , Abraham and Poria 27 , Josiassen, Kock 28 , similar to customers buying other products, documented that tourists not only choose tourist destinations based on objective quality criteria. Rather, tourist animosity has a negative impact on critical tourism-related behaviours 27 , i.e. the willingness to engage in tourist activity, to learn about the local culture, to pay for accommodations in the holiday destination, to visit a destination. Moreover, these recent studies, focused on investigating the effects of tourist animosity on place and tourist intention from tourists of a specific country towards a given country.

In Vietnam, there is a limited amount of research is specifically dedicated to animosity, both in general and within the tourist context. Only a few studies have made references to these research terms, mainly within other research topics such as general foreign product purchase 29 , war tourism 30 , or dark tourism 31 . However, it is important to note that these studies have only touched upon animosity or tourist animosity as factors influencing product choices, rather than extensively exploring these terms as primary research topics.

Studies on tourist animosity are not only limited in number amd have primarily focused on "traditional enemies," which may result in a stronger effect of animosity in this specific context only 32 . As a result, there is a need to have a study focusing on exploring tourist animosity that is outside of the context of traditional enemies or bilateral incidents between nations, outside of the country-specific causes of animosity, but are universal drivers of animosity 6 , 25 , 33 , 34 . Little research has taken a more general approach to the study of tourist animosity in the context of foreign tourist destinations, as well as their impacts on the foreign tourist destination choice process, from before to after a tourist holiday, especially the impacts of these feelings outside of the context of traditional enemies or bilateral incidents between nations 25 , 33 , 34 . To address the research gap, this study explores tourist animosity from one country to different countries, and the effects of tourist animosity on tourist destinations from before and after a holiday. As such, This study aims to enrich the literature on tourist animosity and the destination choice process.

The role of digital information in tourist destination choice

Research on the role of digital information in tourist destination choices has shown that it is a crucial factor in shaping travelers' decisions 35 , 36 . With the increasing availability and accessibility of digital information, tourists rely more heavily on online resources to plan their trips and stay informed about the latest travel regulations and health and safety measures. Studies have found that digital information plays a significant role in inspiring tourists, with social media and travel blogs being popular sources of travel inspiration 36 . Digital information has also been found to influence tourists' perceptions of destination image, with online reviews and ratings playing a critical role in shaping tourists' attitudes towards potential destinations. Moreover, digital technologies have enabled travelers to access virtual tours and online experiences, allowing them to explore destinations from the comfort of their own homes. With the tourism industry continuing to embrace digital technologies, it is expected that the role of digital information in tourist destination choices will only continue to grow in importance in the future, especially in the changing context after the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the tourism industry must prioritize digital communication channels and ensure that accurate and reliable information is readily available to tourists.


Research method

The aim of this study is to investigate tourist animosity and its impact on destination choices. Qualitative data collection and analysis were conducted through in-depth interviews with Vietnamese independent travelers, as suggeted by Boyce and Neale 37 . The interviews followed a semi-structured approach, allowing for exploration of unforeseen issues and generating new knowledge 38 . This method was chosen to obtain detailed information about tourist animosity and its effects on destination choices 39 , 40 .

Data collection

A pilot test was conducted to ensure the effectiveness of the interview guide 41 . Five Vietnamese tourists participated, and feedback was collected on question clarity and sequencing. The interview guide consisted of three parts: general travel experiences, instances of animosity towards foreign countries, and demographic information. The Critical Incident Technique was used to prompt participants to recall their experiences of animosity 42 , 43 , 44 .

Sampling and sample

For this study, a total of 17 interviews were conducted, with each interview ranging from 25 minutes to nearly an hour in duration. The sampling method employed was snowball sampling, whereby participants were selected based on referrals from other participants. The interviews took place in public settings such as coffee shops or restaurants. In certain instances, potential interviewees were not immediately available for an interview following the initial contact with the interviewer. In such cases, they were encouraged to provide their phone number or Skype account for a later interview. Follow-up interviews were promptly arranged and scheduled within the same week as the initial contact to ensure timely data collection.

Seventeen Vietnamese independent travelers were selected as participants for the interviews. Approximately two-thirds of the interviewees fell into the age range of 25 to 34 years old. Similarly, two-thirds of the interviewees had completed college or university degrees. Additionally, more than half of the interviewees were single or not married. Further information regarding the demographic details of the interviewees can be found in Table 1 .

Table 1 Profile of Interviewees

In terms of travel experience, twelve of the interviewees reported traveling independently, while the remaining five traveled with friends or family members (refer to Table 2 ). All participants in the study organized their holidays on their own. The majority of the interviewees traveled primarily for holiday purposes. The duration of their holidays varied from five to fourteen days.

Table 2 Profile of Tour Information

Data analysis

The researcher transcribed the interview recordings into text data and initiated an early analysis to identify any gaps and explore new or unexpected findings. Conducting early analysis while data collection is still ongoing is valuable in recognizing gaps and uncovering new or unexpected insights 45 . This early analysis also aided the researcher in understanding the richness of the data and determining data saturation. Manual coding techniques were utilized to analyze data from the first 12 interviews, and it was observed that data saturation had not been achieved as new themes continued to emerge 45 . The sample size was expanded to enhance the reliability and validity of the data 45 . However, no new themes emerged from the additional interviews conducted between the 14th and 17th interview, resulting in the decision to conclude data collection.

To analyze and interpret the textual data from the interview transcripts, the researcher followed the six-phase thematic analysis approach suggested by Braun and Clarke 46 . The initial phase involved familiarizing with the data, creating an initial list of ideas, and noting down words, phrases, or sentences related to animosity, affinity, reasons for selecting or not selecting a foreign destination, intentions to revisit, and word-of-mouth (WOM) recommendations. In initial codes, they were identified across the entire data set. In the second phase, code was regarded as the fundamental unit of raw data that provided meaning regarding the phenomenon 47 .

Findings and Discussion

Tourist animosity

Literature results suggest that both the animosity arising from war and the animosity stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic have detrimental effects on tourists' intentions to visit, revisit, and provide word-of-mouth recommendations. These findings align with previous research in the field of consumer marketing 13 , 14 , 16 , 28 , highlighting the complex and interdisciplinary nature of animosity. However, it is important to note that the present study's findings on tourist animosity are distinct from those derived from bilateral conflicts or specific events, as they focus on animosity related to the pandemic and war. Additionally, the study reveals that general animosity and negative personal experiences further diminish tourists' intentions to visit, revisit, and engage in word-of-mouth recommendations.

This study proposes that general animosity, war, and the COVID-19 pandemic harm tourists' intentions to visit, revisit, and engage in word-of-mouth recommendations. As a result, it broadens the conceptualization of traditional animosity by including war and pandemic threats as components of animosity. For instance, during interviews, a significant number of participants 7 could not recall a specific reason for their aversion to visiting a particular country. However, they dislike visiting such countries and believed they would never consider visiting them.

  • I do not know exactly why I think that I should not choose that country to visit, but I never think that I should have a holiday in that country. There are so many interesting countries to visit (Interviewee_No1).


  • Overall, I dislike to visit America. No specific reasons, just never think to travel to there (Interviewee_No6)

During the interviews, two distinct components of tourist animosity were identified: the COVID-19 pandemic and war-related animosities. Seven participants specifically mentioned that they take into account the impact of COVID-19 and a country's policies regarding the pandemic when deciding whether to visit. For example, China and Taiwan were highlighted as countries that had not fully opened to international tourists due to COVID-19 restrictions at the time of data collection. As a result, the interviewees unanimously agreed that they had no plans to visit these countries in the foreseeable future, particularly in the coming months.

  • Now, we do need to consider the COVID-19 pandemic and each country’s policy with the pandemic. I think I might not travel to China now as their borders are not open for international tourists yet. The policy of the country to the pandemic is strict (Interviewee_No11).

  • Taiwan. Yeah, the country has still applied some strict rules and regulations for international tourists. Yeah they did it for our safety. So, I do not plan to visit this country in the near future, at least next two years (Interviewee_No17).

In addition to concerns related to the COVID-19 pandemic, some interviewees expressed war animosity as a significant factor influencing their decision not to visit certain countries. For instance, the ongoing conflict between Ukraine and Russia was specifically mentioned, and it had a direct impact on their willingness to visit Ukraine, even if they had relatives residing there. The presence of this war animosity created a strong deterrent for these interviewees, leading them to exclude Ukraine from their travel plans.

  • I think many of us will not intend to visit the Ukraine as the Russia-Ukraine war is still there. I should not suggest Ukraine for anyone to visit now. Actually, no flights there… yeah (Interviewee_No2).

  • Taiwan, I really love this country, love Taiwanese food and sightseeing too. I have visited this country twice already. But now I think I do not plan to visit there, nor recommend this country for any potential tourists this year. Actually, I checked EVA air (the official airline of Taiwan), they often cancel flights from Da Nang to Taiwan (Interviewee_No11).

Among the interviewees, only one individual shared a personal experience of social animosity. This interviewee recounted a negative encounter with people from a specific country, which influenced her perception and feelings towards that country. As a result of this negative experience, she expressed reluctance or hesitancy to visit that particular country in the future.

  • My experiences with people from this country (China) are quite negative. They are quite talkative in public spaces (smile) (Interviewee_No8)

In summary, the consumer animosity model, initially developed by Klein, Ettenson 7 , and later expanded by Kalliny, Hausman 48 , consists of four dimensions: war animosity, economic animosity, political animosity, and cultural and religious animosity. However, the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a novel form of animosity known as pandemic animosity 49 . Pandemic animosity refers to the lingering feelings of hostility and antipathy towards another country based on the belief that it is responsible for causing and spreading the pandemic. Consistent with recent research 49 , this study also confirms the existence of COVID-19 pandemic animosity. Therefore, it emphasizes that tourist animosity, similar to customer animosity, is contingent on specific situations and contexts, thereby necessitating further investigation and adaptability in research approaches.

The role of digital information in the post-COVID-19 era for tourists’ destination choices.

The study's findings validate the significance of tourist information available on online digital channels, including government and travel agency websites, as well as social media platforms, in influencing tourists' decisions to visit or revisit a foreign country. The COVID-19 outbreak has had a profound and lasting impact on multiple industries, including travel and tourism. Despite the ongoing global recovery process, the travel and tourism sector continues to face challenges as individuals remain concerned about safety and exhibit cautious purchasing behavior. This shift in consumer behavior prioritizes essential products over non-essential ones, such as travel and tourism offerings 49 . Consequently, the industry still grapples with the effects of these changes, hindering its full recovery.

Out of the fifteen interviewees, all of them acknowledged the significance of online information in shaping their decisions to visit a particular country. They agreed that accessing and considering online information is the most common channel for obtaining relevant details about their travel destinations. On the other hand, the remaining two interviewees also emphasized the importance of digital information in their decision-making process. However, they added that they often rely on their children's opinions to stay updated with the latest information about the countries they are considering for their holidays. As one interviewee said:

  • I do think that accessing information about a country before visiting is really highly recommended. Even though I booked a tour via Saigon tourist travel agency, the biggest travel agency in Vietnam, I did access Thailand tourism information and Thailand travel policy for tourists. You know, the policy for tourism in general, for tourists after the pandemic, is varied among countries and time. We do need to know, to find out,… yes, when deciding to book a tour, right before to visit the country (Interviewee_No3).

In addition to the aforementioned perspectives, another interviewee highlighted the significance of digital information for making travel decisions. This individual expressed that they heavily rely on online resources, such as travel websites, social media platforms, and review forums, to gather information about a country they are interested in visiting. They emphasized that the availability of comprehensive and reliable information online greatly influences their decision-making process, as it allows them to assess factors like safety, attractions, and cultural experiences associated with the destination. The interviewee said:

  • Definitely, you must check information on the government’s website, the official channel information for tourists for sure. Each country has a different policy for tourism after the COVID-19, for your own safety, also… So, we should check to know (Interviewee_No10).

The tourism industry has been profoundly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to substantial changes in tourists' behavior and preferences. In the post-COVID-19 era, digital information has gained increasing importance for tourists when making decisions about their travel destinations 50 . The findings of the present study align with this trend, demonstrating that tourists, faced with travel restrictions, safety concerns, and evolving travel policies, are relying heavily on digital information to make informed choices.

Tourist animosity, particularly in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic, further emphasizes the reliance on digital information as tourists seek to gather details about travel policies and safety measures. Social media platforms, review websites, and travel blogs have emerged as crucial sources of information, providing valuable insights into the safety protocols and hygiene practices implemented in different destinations. These platforms enable tourists to assess the level of risk associated with their chosen destinations and make informed decisions accordingly.

The findings of this study corroborate recent research 50 , 51 highlighting the vital role of digital information for tourists in the post-COVID-19 era. As travel restrictions and safety concerns persist, digital platforms serve as essential tools for tourists to access up-to-date and relevant information, ensuring they can navigate the evolving landscape of travel with confidence.

Conclusions, Contributions and implications


The present study contributes to the existing literature on consumer animosity by adopting a broader perspective on the examination of tourist animosity within the context of countries as tourist destinations. This approach sheds light on the implications of such animosity when it pertains to tourist destinations, thereby enhancing our understanding of general consumer animosity. While studies addressing animosity in the domain of tourism remain limited in number 28 , it is worth noting that animosity in general consumer marketing may differ from affinity and animosity in tourism, particularly due to the strong association between tourist destinations and their geographical origins. Consequently, this study expands upon the prevailing conceptualization of consumer animosity, which traditionally arises from bilateral conflicts or events, by considering threats such as the pandemic and war, thereby enriching the literature on consumer animosity.This study delves into the concept of consumer animosity, specifically focusing on animosity that extends beyond the unique relationship between a home country and a specific target country. Unlike previous research that often examines animosity within the context of traditional enemies or bilateral incidents between nations, this study explores the feelings of animosity towards a given country from various other countries. By doing so, it broadens the understanding of consumer animosity and sheds light on the complex dynamics that can exist between countries. This research also addresses the calls made by several scholars 25 , 28 , 33 , 34 to explore animosity beyond the confines of specific historical or political contexts, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon.


The objective of this study is to examine the effects of tourist animosity on the decision-making process of selecting a tourist destination, encompassing the stages from pre-holiday planning to post-holiday experiences. The study's findings indicate that tourist animosity significantly influences tourists' intentions to visit, revisit, and engage in word-of-mouth communication regarding a specific destination. This suggests that animosity plays a crucial role in shaping tourists' decisions and behaviors throughout their entire travel journey. Moreover, the study expands the prevailing understanding of tourist animosity, which has traditionally been associated with bilateral conflicts or events. It highlights that threats arising from war and the COVID-19 pandemic can also contribute to the emergence of tourist animosity.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the tourism industry, with travelers expressing concerns about health and safety, leading to hesitancy in travel. This study reveals that tourist animosity varies based on different situations and scenarios, particularly in the aftermath of significant events like the COVID-19 pandemic. Consequently, the study contributes to the existing literature on animosity in tourism by providing a comprehensive understanding of the factors that influence this phenomenon. By emphasizing the influence of animosity on tourists' destination choice process and broadening the understanding of its origins, the study offers valuable insights for tourism practitioners and policymakers. These findings can guide efforts to address animosity in tourism and foster a more positive and sustainable tourism environment.

Additionally, the study contributes to the understanding of Vietnamese tourists' destination choices. Vietnamese tourists consider safety concerns and travel restrictions following the COVID-19 pandemic when selecting international destinations. They also factor in the potential threats of war and the pandemic, leading them to refrain from visiting certain countries. Therefore, this study advances previous research on tourist animosity by examining the COVID-19 pandemic as a form of animosity. The findings support the notion that animosity is complex and multidimensional, highlighting its various manifestations across different situations and scenarios.

Limitations, Conclusions, and Future Research

As with any research study, it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the current investigation. Firstly, this study focuses specifically on tourist animosity among Vietnamese outbound tourists. Consequently, the research context and sample may limit the representativeness and generalizability of the findings. It should be noted that Vietnamese culture is predominantly described as collectivist 52 , and therefore the research outcomes may differ when applied to different cultural contexts, particularly those that are more individualistic. Therefore, caution should be exercised when attempting to generalize the findings to other contexts. To address this limitation, future studies should aim to explore tourist animosity in various contexts, especially within individualistic countries.

Additionally, it is worth mentioning that this study solely examines the impact of tourist animosity on tourist destination choices, without considering other tourism-related outcomes such as willingness to pay or loyalty. Therefore, it is recommended that future research efforts investigate the effects of tourist animosity on these additional dimensions of tourism-related outcomes. By doing so, a more comprehensive understanding of the broader implications of tourist animosity can be achieved. Although the current study provides valuable insights into tourist animosity, it is important to acknowledge its limitations. Future research should strive to examine this phenomenon in diverse cultural contexts and explore its influence on various tourism-related outcomes beyond destination choices.

In conclusion, this study aimed to investigate tourist animosity and its impact on tourist destination choices in the pre- and post-holiday stages. By focusing on threats such as the pandemic and war, rather than bilateral conflicts or events, the study addressed a research gap in the prevailing conceptualization of consumer animosity (e.g., 25 , 28 , 33 , 34 ). Furthermore, it advanced previous research on tourist animosity by considering the COVID-19 pandemic as a distinct form of animosity. The findings of the study reinforced the understanding that animosity is a multifaceted and interdisciplinary phenomenon, influenced by various situations and scenarios. In response to the research calls made by scholars, this study explored the concept of consumer animosity from one country towards different countries. Importantly, it revealed that animosity is not solely dependent on the specific relationship between a particular country and a target country, but also encompasses universal animosity, such as animosity related to the pandemic, which significantly affects tourist destination choices.


This research is funded by Vietnam National University HoChiMinh City (VNU-HCM) under grant number B2023-16-01


The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


Dang Hung Vu: Responsible for crafting the Introduction, conducting a literature review, designing the research, and leading the Discussion section.

Pham Tran Truc Vien: In charge of conducting interviews, writing the Findings section, outlining the Contributions, discussing the Implications, and handling the article's editing process.


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Article Details

Issue: Vol 8 No 1 (2024)
Page No.: 5040-5050
Published: Mar 31, 2024
Section: Research article

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Copyright: The Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 4.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 How to Cite
Dang, V., & Pham, V. (2024). Exploring tourist animosity and its influence on destination choices in the post-covid 19 eras: A study of Vietnamese independent travelers. Science & Technology Development Journal: Economics- Law & Management, 8(1), 5040-5050.

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